Development and validation of an electronic food frequency questionnaire to assess food intake in the Slovene population
M. Bizjak, Z. Jenko-Pražnikar, B. Koroušić Seljak
Public Nutrition, 2013, Oct: 1-9
Objective: To develop and validate electronic food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that estimates the food and nutrient intake, especially fat intake, in a healthy, adult population from the coastal part of Slovenia. Methods: A new electronic FFQ was developed for a survey, entitled »A multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of obesity«, conducted at the University of Primorska, Faculty of Health Sciences, Izola and validated against 3 day weighed food record (FR). Our study population included 85 healthy adults (66% of participants were females and 34% of participants were males) aged 25-49 years, that were recruited from the local coastal region of Slovenia. Food groups’ intakes, macronutrients and energy, estimated by FR and FFQ, were compared using the correlation coefficients, cross classification and Bland-Altman plotting. Results: The mean value of most nutrient intakes tended to be higher in FFQ compared to FR, except for carbohydrates, fiber and energy. Regression analysis demonstrated an acceptable agreement between FFQ and FR. The FFQ was moderately correlated with FR (0.30-0.54), and most of the correlations increased after energy adjustment and after the de-attenuation. There were relatively high (more than 70 %) proportions of subjects, being correctly classified into same or adjacent quartile. Bland-Altman analysis confirmed an acceptable level of agreement between two methods. Conclusion: The electronic FFQ, developed for Slovene, healthy adult population from coastal part, is a valid tool to assess food groups and nutrient, especially fat intakes, and to rank individuals by their intakes within gene-nutrient studies.
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